COVID-19 Central Research Database

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  • Potential effects of curcumin in the treatment of COVID-19 infection

    The main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is the presence of respiratory symptoms, but some patients develop severe cardiovascular and renal complications. There is an urgency to understand the mechanism by which this virus causes complications so as to develop treatment options. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, could be a potential treatment option for patients with coronavirus disease. In this study, we review some of the potential effects of curcumin such as inhibiting the entry of virus to the cell, inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, as well as modulating various cellular signaling pathways. This review provides a basis for further research and development of clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION AND CHALLENGES In this review, we have attempted an overview of the potential antiviral effects of curcumin that can be helpful for researchers to further investigate the potency of curcumin against the new emerging SARSCoV-2 infection. The ability of curcumin to modulate a wide range of molecular targets makes it a suitable candidate for the management of coronavirus infection. Curcumin may have beneficial effects against COVID-19 infection via its ability to modulate the various molecular targets that contribute to the attachment and internalization of SARS-CoV-2 in many organs, including the liver, cardiovascular system, and kidney. Curcumin could also modulate cellular signaling pathways such as inflammation, apoptosis, and RNA replication. Curcumin may also suppress pulmonary edema and fibrosis-associated pathways in COVID-19 infection. Despite the potential beneficial effects and safety profile of curcumin against various diseases, the limited bioavailability of this turmericderived compound, especially via oral administration may be a problematic issue (Anand, Kunnumakkara, Newman, & Aggarwal, 2007). Yang et al. demonstrated that intravenous administration of curcumin (10 mg/kg) resulted in better bioavailability in comparison to oral administration with a higher dose (500 mg/kg) (K. Y. Yang, Lin, Tseng, Wang, & Tsai, 2007). Several clinical trials have shown that the issue regarding the bioavailability of curcumin can be mitigated by administering higher concentrations within non-toxic limits (Kunnumakkara et al., 2019). In addition, many studies have suggested various ways to improve the bioavailability of curcumin such as manipulation and encapsulation of curcumin into micelles, liposomes, phospholipid complexes, exosomes, or polymeric nanocarrier formulation and also utilization of curcumin in combination with cellulosic derivatives, natural antioxidants, and a hydrophilic carrier (Jäger et al., 2014; Moballegh Nasery et al., 2020). Moreover, several studies have reported the synergistic therapeutic effects of curcumin in combination with other natural or synthetic compounds (Singh et al., 2013). Overall, the welldocumented anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of curcumin along with the evidence on the anti-fibrotic and pulmonoprotective effects of this phytochemical on the lung tissue make it a promising candidate for the treatment of COVID-19. Since curcumin is known to have strong inhibitory effects on NF-κB and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, it can be particularly helpful as an adjunct in reversing the fatal cytokine storm that occurs in serious cases of COVID-19. 6 ZAHEDIPOUR ET AL. To sum up, this review shows that curcumin as an antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent can be helpful for both prevention and treatment of new emerging coronavirus. However, well-designed clinical trials are needed to demonstrate the potential efficacy of curcumin against SARS-CoV-2 infection and its ensuing complications. Reference & Source Information: Read more on :

  • Vaccine For Coronavirus Likely to be Available by September, Says Oxford Expert Sarah Gilbert

    Professor Sarah Gilbert, an expert of mediconology at the University of Oxford, said she is confident of a vaccine for novel coronavirus being available by September this year. Her claims comes in contradiction of most pharmaceutical wizards predicting an 18-month time frame to find either a vaccine or a cure to the COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 Ten Times Worse Than Swine Flu, Vaccine Needed to Fully Halt Disease: WHO.Londo: Professor Sarah Gilbert, an expert of mediconology at the University of Oxford, said she is confident of a vaccine for novel coronavirus being available by September this year. Her claims comes in contradiction of most pharmaceutical wizards predicting an 18-month time frame to find either a vaccine or a cure to the COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 Ten Times Worse Than Swine Flu, Vaccine Needed to Fully Halt Disease: WHO. Gilbert, while speaking to BBC Radio on Monday, said trials are being conducted across the world at an "unprecedented rate". In the University of Oxford as well, the process to screen over 500 volunteers - aged between 18 to 55 - for the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine has been expedited, she said. The manufacturers should be ready to produce the vaccine in bulk, she said, adding that billions across the globe would have to be vaccinated against the disease. The process to initiate manufacturing should not be kept on hold till the vaccine is confirmed to be successful, the professor added. "We need to start manufacturing large amounts of the vaccine. It is not uncommon for companies to start manufacturing a new vaccine before they really know for certain it works”, she told the radio channel during the morning show. The Oxford team, which was successful with its rapid vaccine response tests for Ebola in 2014, is hopeful of repeating the success with its coronavirus vaccine trials. The clinical tests are expected to begin next week, Gilbert said. She had last week told a leading magazine that her team is "80 percent sure" of developing the vaccine. Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic infected more than 1,900,000 persons by the time this report was published. The death toll climbed to 118,497. The worst-affected is the United States, where over 600,000 are infected and the death toll has crossed the 23,000-mark. Italy and Spain have recorded over 20,000 and more than 17,000 deaths, respectively. Source

  • Indian researchers from JNCASR develops novel anti-microbial coating

    Bengaluru based Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), an autonomous institution under the Department of Science and Technology, has developed a one-step curable anti-microbial coating which, when coated on different surfaces such as textile, plastic and so on could kill a range of virus types including COVID 19. JNCASR is an autonomous institution under the Department of Science and Technology. According to the researchers, “till date, to the best of our knowledge, there is no covalent coating strategy which can kill all viruses, bacteria and fungi.” This covalent coating, the research paper about which has been accepted in the journal Applied Material and Interfaces, has been found to completely kill influenza virus as well as resistant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans spp. The molecules developed have an ability to chemically cross-link with different surfaces upon UV irradiation. Upon the formation of the coating, it has been shown to permeabilize the membranes of pathogens (i.e. bacteria) leading to their inactivation. Microbial attachment and their colony formation on different surfaces play a major role in the transmission of deadly infections in the community as well as healthcare settings. Keeping this in mind, an easy approach was developed to coat a wide range of substrates used in daily life as well as in clinical settings. Molecules were designed, keeping in mind their optimum solubility in a wide range of solvents (such as water, ethanol, chloroform). The coating can be fabricated on a variety of surfaces, and its ease and robustness eliminate the necessity of skilled personnel for procurement of the coating. Coronavirus, like influenza, is also an enveloped virus. Therefore, it is anticipated that the coating may inactivate SARS-CoV-2 upon contact and can help prevent contamination if coated on various surfaces. Considering the current outbreak, if shown to be active, the molecule can be synthesised in large scale through a CRO (Contract Research Organisation) and can be coated on various personal protective tools such as masks, gloves and gowns in collaboration with the private organisations. The molecules can also be coated on other medical devices and tools to avoid hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections. Currently, the frontline health workers are at the biggest risk currently. The molecules were then immobilised on different substrates such as cotton, polyurethane, polypropylene, polystyrene, etc., which construct majority of the objects we see around us. After coating, the surfaces were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity. References: BioSpectrum, The Tribune,

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